17th July 2012
The new Yaris hybrid: a quiet revolution in the B-segment
Everyone knows that green is the new black. It should therefore come as no surprise that Brad, Angelina, Jennifer, George and Leonardo are amongst an ever-increasing list of A-listers who have opted to sashay down Rodeo Drive in hybrids. While some may balk at the idea of the Hollywood jet set flaunting their organic “Free Trade” cotton T-shirts, there is no denying that the human race is heading towards an environmental meltdown unless some serious green-fingered intervention takes place.
Now we aren’t claiming to have found the cure for global warming, but there are three incontrovertible truths about Toyota’s Hybrid Synergy Drive® (HSD):
1. You will drastically cut down on your fuel consumption
2. You will radically reduce hazardous emissions (much lower particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions than a diesel, plus there’s no particulate filter to go wrong)
3. You will be helping to protect the environment.
The new Yaris HSD epitomises this ethos. Featuring a new powertrain that has been optimised for installation within the vehicle’s compact, extremely efficient packaging design it delivers without detriment to performance, passenger accommodation or loadspace. The downsized hybrid system combines a substantially re-engineered 1.5 litre petrol engine with a lighter, more compact electric motor, transaxle, inverter and battery pack. With low fuel consumption (average fuel consumption of just 3.8 l/100 km), low environmental impact, strong acceleration, great manoeuvrability and unique all-electric EV capabilities, it represents the ultimate urban car.
According to Kerry Roodt, General Manager of Marketing Communications, the new Yaris HSD marks a number of industry firsts: “Toyota has taken its sophisticated HSD drivetrain and squeezed it into the popular Yaris, making it the smallest full hybrid in the world, not forgetting of course that it carries the most affordable price tag. With emissions of just 88g/km, it’s also officially South Africa’s lowest carbon emitter.”
“But, what makes the Yaris HSD truly impressive is that it’s a no-compromise package. The CVT transmission has been refined to provide a natural acceleration feel, boot space is not sacrificed due to the fact that the batteries are stowed underneath the rear seats and, like its Auris sibling, this is a hybrid that doesn't feel the need to shout its green credentials to every casual observer, a few fetching aesthetically-enhancing aerodynamics aside. To summarise then, the Yaris HSD is much more than just another new product, it represents a major step in the company’s full hybrid roll-out strategy”, concludes Roodt.
The Yaris Hybrid differentiates itself from the other Yaris derivatives with an exclusive, aerodynamically-efficient exterior design which instantly identifies it as the flagship of the Yaris model range.
It combines a new, more aggressive, frontal design treatment - the distinctive ‘family’ Toyota face is still there but with HSD detailing reinforced by hybrid-specific LED lights. Flanked by front aero corner treatments, the strong centre section of the lower bumper houses a larger, trapezoidal lower grille optimising engine bay cooling whilst emphasising the new hybrid’s ground-hugging stance and low centre of gravity.
A slimmer upper grille, elegantly sculpted to highlight the hybrid-blue Toyota badge and accented by slim headlights, emphasises the new hybrid’s bold, horizontal front styling. Exclusive to the Yaris Hybrid, the projector-type headlamp unit features standard chrome-plated ‘eyebrows’ lipped with an LED ‘lightguide’, and LED Daytime Running Lights (DRL).
In profile, identified by hybrid badging and alloys (XS and XR), the new hybrid shares the stylish, cab-forward silhouette and long wheelbase profile of the standard Yaris. The exterior overall length is only 20 mm longer than the standard Yaris due to the revised front bumper design.
To the rear, the hybrid-blue badged tailgate incorporates a new, LED-type high mounted stop light, and clear lens combination lights incorporate a LED tail and stop lamp signature unique to the new Yaris Hybrid.
Sized to optimise hybrid powertrain cooling, both upper and lower front grilles have been carefully shaped to both smooth and maximise the intake of air into the engine bay. The profiles of the front bumper aero corners, bonnet, steeply raked A pillar, door mirrors, roofline, rear spoiler, rear bumper aero corners, the rear combination lamps and even the wheels have all been designed to maximise the Yaris Hybrid’s aerodynamic efficiency.
In addition, numerous underbody airflow rectification components have been adopted to create a flat surface, smoothing the flow of air under the new Yaris Hybrid. These include a front spoiler, a large engine undercover, and front, centre and rear deflectors. A rear undercover incorporates vertical fins which create a laminar flow effect to enhance ride stability. As a result, Toyota’s new full hybrid boasts a class-leading drag coefficient of just Cd 0.286.
Rounding off the new package are standard 15” alloy wheels, and a range of six body colours including a model-specific new “Pearl White” execution. Toyota pioneered this Pearl White finish, which has required the introduction of a bespoke production process at the Toyota Motor Manufacturing France (TMMF) plant where the new hybrid is built. Reinforcing the Yaris Hybrid’s uniquely stylish and environmentally-conscientious design credentials, the new colour delivers a cool, high quality image (particularly in sunlight) when the soft, silken lustre of pearl is at its strongest.
The Yaris HSD is available in two trim grades – mid-spec XS and high-grade XR – both of which feature a generous list of standard kit. The only external differentiators between the two being the inclusion of front fog lights, privacy glass for the rear side windows and a rear spoiler for the flagship XR model.
On the safety front, the 5-star EuroNCAP rated Yaris gets ABS (with EBD and BAS) as well as Vehicle Stability Control (VSC). In XS guise, the Yaris comes standard with four airbags (driver, passenger and side airbag system) while the XR grade gets a total of seven thanks to the additional curtain shield and driver knee airbags.
Bespoke, hybrid-exclusive interior
On board, Yaris Hybrid customers benefit from a driver-focused cockpit with hybrid-exclusive details and trim finishes.
Silver ring-trimmed, three dimensional instrument dials incorporate a hybrid system indicator and feature a combination of white and blue backlighting. The centre console-mounted “Toyota Touch” system incorporates a hybrid energy monitor illuminated in blue as well as the dual zone air-conditioning.
The dashboard soft-touch pads and front door trims are finished in an exclusive, Ice Grey colour, and blue stitching trims the leather/cloth upholstery (XR only), steering wheel and hand brake. A unique gear lever to the hybrid derivative comes standard with blue finish on the gear knob. It goes without saying that both Yaris HSD models come with a well stocked larder of standard equipment.
Here’s a rundown of some of the most important standard kit:
• Automatic climate control with seperate temperature controls for driver and front passenger;
• Remote central locking
• Touchscreen* audio incorporating Bluetooth and on-board computer with hybrid-specific “Eco” functions;
• Audio jack with USB port;
• Steering wheel controls (audio and Bluetooth);
• Height-adjustable driver’s seat;
• 3-spoke leather steering wheel (height- and tilt-adjustable);
• Follow-me-home headlights.
XR models get the flagship treatment by adding some of these items to the standard equipment menu:
• Push-start button;
• Iluminated glovebox with cooling function;
• Back monitor (image shown in the centre touchscreen display);
• 8-speaker sound system (as opposed to the 6-speaker system for the XS);
• Electrically-adjustable rear windows;
• Combination leather/fabric upholstery trim;
• Height-adjustable front passenger seat;
• Electrochromatic rear-view mirror;
• Cruise control;
• Illuminated vanity mirrors;
• Rain-sensing windscreen wipers;
• Auto light control system.
* The Toyota Touch system incorporates a Hybrid Energy Monitor which displays the real-time energy flow within the Hybrid Synergy Drive system. Vehicle information displays include remaining fuel range, instant fuel consumption, average fuel consumption per minute over the last 15 minutes, time elapsed since last engine start as well as a record of past consumption results.
Downsized full hybrid powertrain for fuel and space efficiency
• Substantially re-engineered 1.5 litre petrol unit engine combined with downsized hybrid system components
• Compact battery, relocated under the rear seats to preserve boot space
• Total system output of 74 kW, with low, 3.8 l/100 km fuel consumption
• Lowest CO2, NOx and Particulate Matter emissions of any vehicle in South Africa
• Frequent all-electric operation with no fuel consumed and zero emissions
• Driving range potential of 1 000 km on one tank of fuel
The new Yaris Hybrid introduces the first downsizing of Toyota’s proven HSD technology. It represents a significant engineering breakthrough in the packaging of the full hybrid powertrain. The new powertrain has been optimised for installation within the vehicle’s compact, extremely efficient packaging design, without detriment to either performance, or passenger accommodation and load space.
Every key HSD component has been reduced in size and weight, and both the fuel tank and battery are installed under the rear seat. As a result, the Yaris Hybrid maintains identical occupant space and the same 286 litre luggage capacity as that of the standard model.
The downsized full hybrid system combines a 1.5 litre petrol engine unit with a lighter, more compact electric motor, transaxle, inverter and battery pack. The total system weight is 201 kg, 20% (42 kg) less than that of an Auris Hybrid.
Compact, lower displacement petrol engine
The 1 497 cc, 16-valve, DOHC Atkinson Cycle petrol engine with VVT-i is based on the engine block of the second generation Prius, but has been completely re-engineered. It is 50 mm shorter and 17 kg lighter than the 1.8 litre unit of existing Toyota full hybrid powertrains, equating to a 10% reduction in length and a 17% reduction in weight.
The new engine generates a maximum 55 kW at 4 800 rpm and maximum torque of 111 Nm from 3 600 to 4 400 rpm. With a focus on lower emissions and the minimisation of mechanical friction for improved fuel efficiency, some 70% of all engine components are either new or redesigned.
Overall, the thermal efficiency of the Yaris Hybrid petrol engine has been improved by 6% over that of the second generation Prius, contributing to improvements in both fuel efficiency and environmental performance.
Newly adopted engine technologies include a cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system, an electric water pump, the elimination of the auxiliary drive belt, a low-friction timing chain, a lightweight, resin-based intake manifold and a compact exhaust manifold. When used in combined with a cooled EGR system, the Atkinson cycle engine offers significant gains in fuel efficiency and the reduction of emissions.
In the Atkinson cycle, compression and expansion are asymmetrical, and the inlet valves close late, delaying compression. This creates a high expansion ratio for less compression, converting combustion energy to engine power more effectively. As a result, the exhaust temperature is lower than that of conventional engines. The cooled EGR system reintroduces cooled exhaust gas into the intake system, further reducing engine operating temperatures.
Allied to a small, lightweight, multi-function radiator, the adoption of an electric water pump both enhances engine warm-up performance and reduces cooling friction loss, improving fuel efficiency. The elimination of a mechanical pump drive belt reduces friction, further improving fuel economy.
A new, more compact, hybrid-exclusive resin-based intake manifold combines light weight with improved quietness through the reduction of both vibration and noise. And the use of highly efficient, 12-hole atomizing fuel injectors reduces both fuel consumption and emissions.
The exhaust system features a new, low heat capacity, maniverter-type exhaust manifold. By positioning the catalytic converter much closer to the engine exhaust port, it decreases the catalyser warm-up time by 24% and contributes to a marked improvement in emissions during shorter journeys.
Downsized hybrid transaxle
Housing the electric motor, generator, power split device and double-motor reduction mechanism in one lightweight, highly compact transmission casing directly comparable in size to that of a conventional gearbox, a new transaxle lies at the heart of the HSD system.
The use of a smaller E-CVT electric continuously variable transmission and a more compact electric motor effects a 6% reduction in the length of the Yaris Hybrid’s hybrid transaxle and an 11 kg weight saving over that of the Auris Hybrid, creating the most compact hybrid transmission yet engineered by Toyota.
Generating an immediate maximum of 45 kW and 169 Nm torque during acceleration, the new electric motor has been made smaller and lighter through the optimisation of the magnet material, and the winding of the coils with flat, rather than round, wire. The motor cooling structure has also been improved, allowing for a smaller, yet more efficient and powerful motor.
The transaxle now incorporates a multifunctional motor reduction gear within the power division mechanism, and a new gear deceleration mechanism abolishes the use of chains. Gear tooth grinding and shaving technology similar to that used on the Auris Hybrid effects a notable reduction in transmission noise and vibration. This is further lowered by the adoption of a newly designed torsional vibration damper. Its smaller diameter made possible by the use of a three spring structure. The new, lightweight damper helps suppress the transmission of engine vibrations to a minimum level.
The optimisation of lubrication both improves transaxle efficiency and minimises energy losses. A new lubrication mechanism is adopted, in which each gear and bearing is lubricated by combing up the Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) with the rotation of the final driven gear and counter driven gear, reducing driving force losses. The use of a split construction oil catch tank which supplies oil for both the motor/generator and gear lubrication lowers the dynamic oil level, reducing agitation losses.
More compact hybrid battery
The new, downsized full hybrid powertrain also features a smaller, 144 V nickel-metal hydride battery with a more efficient vehicle electric power management system. The number of cells has been reduced from the 168 of the current, Auris Hybrid battery to only 120, composed of 20 modules connected in series. This effects a decrease in volume of 20% and a weight saving of 11 kg, allowing for the installation of the new battery entirely under the rear passenger seats, with no intrusion into the cargo load space.
In addition to this reduction in size and weight, battery charging efficiency has been improved, and the pack state-of-charge recovery time has been decreased by 67% compared to that of the Auris Hybrid.
Hybrid system performance
Combining the power of a 55 kW petrol engine and battery powering the electrical motor, the Yaris Hybrid’s highly efficient powertrain generates a maximum 74 kW system output. It offers the best balance of performance and fuel consumption/CO2 emissions in the B segment.
The Yaris Hybrid will accelerate seamlessly from 0-100 km/h in 11.8 seconds, and on to a maximum speed of 165 km/h. Conversely, it delivers an average fuel consumption of just 3.8 l/100 km and segment-best CO2 emissions of only 88 g/km, whilst allowing customers frequent driving in modes that emit zero NOx, Particulate Matter (PM) or CO2 emissions. Its exceptional fuel efficiency gives the Yaris Hybrid a driving range potential of close to 1 000 km on a single tank of fuel.
Hybrid synergy drive in operation
Over the course of any journey, Toyota’s HSD system operates in several different modes to maximise the Yaris Hybrid’s’ overall efficiency. At rest, the engine stops automatically to save fuel. Under operating conditions of low engine efficiency such as start up and low- to mid-range speeds, the vehicle runs on the electric motor alone, thus eradicating CO2, NOx and PM emissions.
Under normal driving conditions, power allocation is constantly adjusted between engine and electric motor to combine optimum performance with maximum fuel efficiency.
Via an Electronically Controlled Braking system, the electric motor acts as a high-output generator during deceleration and under braking to effect regenerative braking, optimising energy management in the HSD system by recovering kinetic energy (normally wasted as heat under braking and deceleration) as electrical energy for storage in the high performance battery.
Well balanced dynamics, ideal for city driving
• Zero emission driving possible for a high proportion of journey length and duration
• Transmission optimised for a more natural acceleration feel
• Two additional on demand driving modes: EV and ECO
• Class leading turning radius of 4.7 metres
• Low, 550 mm centre of gravity
• Electronically Controlled Braking system for powerful and progressive braking
Building on the inherently quiet, smooth power delivery of Toyota’s Hybrid Synergy Drive®, the fundamental elements of intrinsic driving pleasure – such as acceleration/braking feel, balance and agility – have been thoroughly refined without any compromise in the new Yaris Hybrid.
Full hybrid in operation
Recent real world tests with Toyota’s Hybrid Synergy Drive powertrain reveal that the Yaris Hybrid zero emissions driving accounts for around 66% of the average commuter journey length and around 58% of the total journey time, with the petrol engine being switched off.
The electric motor’s ability to deliver maximum torque from the vehicle acceleration start provides significant benefits during the stop/start driving of urban traffic conditions, combining brisk acceleration from a standstill in near silence with class-leading acceleration under full throttle of 0-50 km/h in only 4 seconds (0-100 km/h is dispatched in a laudable 11,8 seconds).
The new Yaris Hybrid’s seamless, E-CVT electric continuously variable transmission benefits from a new control system to create a more progressive engine rpm increase during vehicle acceleration. Optimised at 70-90% throttle opening, the new system suppresses excessive increases in engine rpm under acceleration, offering drivers a more natural-feeling, linear relationship between vehicle and engine speeds.
Supplementing this enhanced E-CVT transmission, two alternative ‘on-demand’ drive modes may be selected to further increase driving efficiency, performance and fuel economy. From start-up and at speeds up to 50 km/h the new Yaris Hybrid automatically operates in EV mode, driving under electric motor power alone. The driver may also select EV mode manually. This unique driving mode is only available to drivers of full hybrid vehicles.
With vehicle range dictated by battery charge, the EV drive mode allows for urban driving with minimal noise and zero CO2, NOx and PM emissions for up to two kilometres. Because the petrol engine is switched off throughout its operation, the EV drive mode contributes to a significant reduction in the Yaris Hybrid’s overall fuel consumption.
In ECO mode, throttle response to aggressive accelerator pedal inputs is reduced and air-conditioning control optimized for improved fuel economy. Depending on driving conditions, the ECO mode can help drivers achieve about 10% reduction in fuel consumption versus the normal mode.
Optimum weight distribution for balanced driveability
The extensive use of high-tensile steel within the new Yaris Hybrid’s construction not only saves weight, but also offers greater bodyshell rigidity for handling stability. Some 50% by weight of the body is formed in high-tensile steel, allowing for weight reduction with no loss of torsional stiffness.
With an unchanged 2 510 mm length wheelbase, the front overhang has been increased by just 20 mm to accommodate the downsized full hybrid powertrain. With both the fuel tank and the new, more compact hybrid battery located well within the vehicle wheelbase and as low as possible, the new Yaris Hybrid combines a particularly low, 550 mm centre of gravity with 63:37 front/rear weight distribution to deliver well-balanced driveability.
Agile handling and responsive steering
The new Yaris Hybrid shares the standard Yaris’ proven combination of MacPherson strut front and torsion beam rear suspension. Modifications to both spring and damper rates are optimised based on the new full hybrid’s weight distribution.
The independent, MacPherson strut front suspension shares the mass and vibration reduction measures introduced on the standard Yaris, optimising the system’s road tracking performance and minimising vibration whilst delivering appropriate ride comfort, driving safety, agility and grip.
The rear torsion beam suspension also benefits from the mass reduction measures and system enhancements introduced on the standard Yaris, once again reducing vibration and enhancing ride comfort, while improving vehicle agility.
The Yaris Hybrid features a quick steering gear ratio of 56 mm/rev to deliver a better steering feel and vehicle response. The bearing rigidity of the rack and pinion gearing reduces friction and system play, further enhancing accuracy and feel. The vehicle has a class-leading turning circle of only 4.7 metres, allowing for great manoeuvrability in congested city streets or whilst parking.
Powerful regenerative braking
Incorporating Electronic Brakeforce distribution (EBD) and Brake Assist, Traction Control (TRC) and Vehicle Stability Control (VSC), the new Yaris Hybrid is equipped with an Electronically Controlled Braking (ECB) system which coordinates the control of both hydraulic and regenerative braking.
The new full hybrid is fitted with ventilated disc brakes to the front and solid, discs to the rear for powerful, progressive and well balanced braking efficiency. Coordinated control of the hydraulic and regenerative braking systems maximises the regeneration of energy by the electric motor during deceleration and under braking.
Unbeatable value proposition
• Competitively priced
• Urban cycle fuel consumption of only 3.1 l/100 km
• Low maintenance costs
• No powertrain clutch, starter motor, alternator belt or timing belt
- Yaris HSD XS: R223 800 (incl. VAT)
- Yaris HSD VR: R245 900 (incl. VAT)
Its segment-first, full hybrid technology offers Yaris Hybrid customers outstanding value for money through an unparalleled combination of competitive price, low maintenance and running costs, and Toyota’s traditional high residual values.
The Yaris Hybrid is competitively priced in the segment, comparing particularly favourably against diesel-powered vehicles. However, customer convenience is not compromised, with features such as dual auto-air-conditioning, automatic transmission, full electric drive and stop and start fitted as standard across the model range.
Best-in-class CO2 emissions of 88 g/km combined with superior fuel efficiency offer customers exceptionally low running costs and, in many countries, significant tax incentives or benefits.
The Toyota full hybrid consumes only 3.8 l/100 km over the homologation combined cycle, allowing customers to drive up to 1 000 km on a single tank of fuel.
The Hybrid Synergy Drive® system has been specifically designed for low maintenance and outstanding durability. The powertrain has been designed with no requirement for the clutch, starter motor, alternator belt and timing belt traditionally used in other vehicles.
And, thanks to the efficiency of the Yaris Hybrid’s Electronically Controlled Braking system (ECB), the brake pads life expectancy can potentially reach 100 000 km. Combining this component longevity with reduced labour times during servicing, Yaris Hybrid maintenance costs over 100 000 km are expected to be amongst the lowest in the B segment.
Rigorously assessed for performance and durability, and backed up by over 14 years of in-service experience, the full hybrid battery is designed to last the entire life of the car. The new Yaris Hybrid benefits from a three year/100 000 km warranty, extended to eight years/195 000 km on hybrid system components, including the battery. As with other Yaris models, the new HSD range comes with a standard four year/60 000 km service plan.
TMMF manufactures the only full hybrid in the B-segment
Toyota Motor Manufacturing UK (TMUK) already assembles Toyota full hybrid vehicles, the start of Yaris Hybrid production at Toyota Motor Manufacturing France (TMMF) represents a new milestone - it makes Toyota the only manufacturer to have two full hybrid technology production facilities in Europe.
Originally conceived as a highly compact plant - with limited parts stock and an optimised production line layout contributing to a notably streamlined manufacturing process - Toyota Motor Manufacturing France (TMMF) has been building the Yaris for over a decade.
The Yaris has already established a reputation for outstanding levels of Quality, Durability and Reliability (Toyota QDR). With the addition of further derivatives including the new Yaris Hybrid, TMMF remains committed to delivering vehicles with the highest levels of built-in quality in the B-segment. Yaris Hybrid manufacturing has introduced further complexity and new challenges to the assembly process, and increased the range of Yaris models produced on the same line to a record high of 62 varieties at TMMF.
On average, each Yaris requires the assembly of over 2 600 parts, with around 80% of total parts common to the standard Yaris and the Yaris Hybrid. However, there are 400 new, hybrid-specific components, and 40% of all assembly processes for the Yaris Hybrid are either new, or required adaptation. Because of the plant’s very compact size, stock management has had to be further optimised, and sequenced delivery organised for a larger number of parts.
Over 4 000 hours of Yaris Hybrid assembly training was provided to TMMF members, with a focus on three key areas: assembly techniques for new on-line parts, part variety recognition amongst components of a similar kind, and the meeting of key quality targets. Specific attention was paid to the inverter assembly, this component being highly sensitive to dust and body intrusion.
Specific safety training in how to handle high voltage parts was provided to some 50 plant members, and new safety procedures resultant from the silent running of vehicles in EV drive mode established. In addition, a new, hybrid-specific, high quality pearl white paint finish was introduced at TMMF for the first time.
Despite these changes, and additional logistic complexities such as sequencing delivery of a higher number of parts, the continuous Kaizen and production line streamlining inherent in the principles of the Toyota Production System have meant that, overall, the Yaris Hybrid takes not much longer to produce than the standard Yaris.
Befitting the Yaris Hybrid’s environmental credentials, the TMMF plant itself has seen the recent implementation of numerous environmental initiatives to minimise waste and lower power and water consumption. Waste production has been reduced by 34% over the last 10 years, and since 2007, 100% of waste is recycled or recovered.
Through Toyota’s continuous improvement activities, the plant has also achieved average savings per car of 27% in energy, 67% in water and 48% in VOC (the volatile organic compounds produced through solvent usage) over the same period.
In 2011, 60% of the plant’s total water needs were covered by either rainwater – collected in a specific 6 200 cubic metre basin, or by recycling used water from production processes at an in-house waste water treatment station.
A 1 020 square metre photovoltaic membrane has been installed on the plant roof, providing half of the electricity needed for the administration building. And the press shop incorporates a 400 square metre solar wall, pre-heating the outside air to save on heating energy and CO2 emissions.
Dispensing with the need for packaging materials, all car components are delivered from suppliers to the plant in 400 000 reusable plastic boxes, reused for over 10 years.
The plant currently manufactures around 1 000 cars a day, corresponding to one new Yaris driving out of the line every 68 seconds. TMMF expects to produce around 200 000 vehicles in 2012, of which 25% hybrid.
Source: Toyota SA